He came from a long line of successful Mughal emperors, including his grandfather Akbar the Great, and was the third son of Emperor Jahangir. He was interred in the Taj Mahal, beside his beloved Mumtaz Mahal. [16] Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care. In response to the devastation, Shah Jahan set up langar (free kitchens) for the victims of the famine. [46] Mumtaz's eldest daughter, Jahanara Begum, gradually brought her father out of grief and took her mother's place at court. [14] He was laid to rest next to his wife in the Taj Mahal. Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah). There are names of wifes of ShahJahan – Akbarabadi Mahal, Kandahari Mahal, Mumtaz Mahal(Most loved wife), Hasina Begum Sahiba, Muti Begum Sahiba, Qudsia Begum Sahiba, Fatehpuri Mahal Sahiba, Sarhindi Begum Sahiba and Shrimati Manbhavathi Baiji Lal Sahiba were the wives of ShahJahan. This relatively quiet and stable period of his life allowed Khurram to build his own support base in the Mughal court, which would be useful later on in his life.[23]. [14] Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built as a tomb for her, which is considered to be a monument of undying love. Shah Jahan succeeded the throne after revolting against his father, Jahangir. During his 30 year reign, Shah Jahan transformedhis empire into a well-oiled military machine. [citation needed]Edward S. Holden writes, "He was flattered by some, envied by others, loved by none."[31]. During his reign, from 1628 to 1658, the Mogul Empire reached its zenith in prosperity and luxury. Despite her frequent pregnancies, Mumtaz travelled with Shah Jahan's entourage throughout his earlier military campaigns and the subsequent rebellion against his father. Early in adolescence, she attracted the attention of important nobles of the realm. When Shah Jahan became emperor, he gave her the title Mumtaz Mahal… Some villages were completely destroyed, their streets filled with human corpses. Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666) was the fifth Mughal Emperor of India from 1628 to 1658. She ordered Prince Khurram to march for Kandahar, but he refused. Shah Jahan's chaplain Sayyid Muhammad Qanauji and Kazi Qurban of Agra came to the fort, moved his body to a nearby hall, washed it, enshrouded it and put it in a coffin of sandalwood. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3] (Persian: شهاب‌الدین محمد خرم‎; 5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666),[7] better known by his regnal name, Shah Jahan (Persian: شاه جهان‎, lit. [39] Mumtaz was portrayed as having no aspirations to political power, in contrast to her aunt, Empress Nur Jahan, the chief consort of Emperor Jahangir, who had wielded considerable influence in the previous reign. He married and had issue. The Taj Mahal in Agra, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World, was commissioned by her husband to act as her tomb. Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, died on this day, June 17, in the year 1631. Life; Ancestry; References; Life. It is seen as an embodiment of undying love and marital devotion. Shah Jahān was the third son of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and the Rajput princess Manmati. He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made to celebrate his rule. This was an unusually long engagement for the time. As a result, a complex political climate surrounded the Mugha… [7] Although betrothed to Shah Jahan since 1607,[8] she ultimately became his second wife in 1612. Shah Jahan. The mosque has overall 93 domes and it is the world's largest mosque having such a number of domes. Slowly and gradually, while she became the actual power behind the throne, Jahangir became more indulgent in wine and opium. [14], Upon his accession to the throne in 1628,[33] Shah Jahan designated Mumtaz as his chief empress with the title of 'Malika-i-Jahan' ("Queen of the World")[6] and 'Malika-uz-Zamani' ("Queen of the Age")[34] and mallikai-hindustan ("Queen of the hindustan"). She died unmarried. The post was heavily armed with cannons, battleships, fortified walls, and other instruments of war. The name is also spelt Shah Jehan, or just Shahjahan. Much like his father, Jahangir, Shah Jahan was one of the most prolific gem collectors and connoisseurs of his day (figure 24). [30] According to the official court chronicler, Motamid Khan, as recorded in his Iqbal Namah-e-Jahangiri, the relationship with his other wives "had nothing more than the status of marriage. Her death had a profound impact on Shah Jahan's personality and inspired the construction of the Taj Mahal, where she was later reburied. However, Shah Jahan first married Princess Kandahari Begum, the daughter of a great-grandson of Shah Ismail I of Persia with whom he had a daughter, his first child. She was an active participant in the decisions made by Jahangir. As a result of Prince Khurram's refusal to obey Nur Jahan's orders, Kandahar was lost to the Persians after a forty-five-day siege. This fine portrait depicts one of the most significant Mughal courtiers of the early 17th century, Mirza Abu'l Hassan Asaf Khan (d.1641). Jahangir's death in late 1627 spurred a war of succession, from which Shah Jahan emerged victorious after much intrigue. [28][29] According to the official court historians, both the marriages were political alliances. This set off a war of succession among his four sons in which his third son, Aurangzeb, emerged victorious and usurped his father's throne. fol. She died in the sixteenth year of her marriage while giving birth to their fourteenth child. Golconda submitted in 1635 and then Bijapur in 1636. Upon the death of Jahangir in 1627, the wazir Asaf Khan, who had long been a quiet partisan of Prince Khurram, acted with unexpected forcefulness and determination to forestall his sister the empress Nur Jahan's plans to place Prince Shahryar on the throne. [40], A famine broke out in 1630–32 in Deccan, Gujarat and Khandesh as a result of three main crop failures. She was Princess of Persia and youngest daughter of Prince Sultan Muzzafar Hussain Mirza of Safavid dynasty and married Shah jahan on 12th December 1609. Mumtaz Mahal was a Muslim Persian Princess and Shah Jahan was the grandson of Akbar and son of Mughal Emperor Jehangir the great. European travelers, such as François Bernier, who observed its construction, were among the first to call it the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan's treasurer was Sheikh Farid, who founded the city of Faridabad. [6] The marriage was a love-match. [42], Mumtaz Mahal died from postpartum hemorrhage in Burhanpur on 17 June 1631[43] while giving birth to her fourteenth child, after a prolonged labor of approximately 30 hours. His cultural and political initial steps have been described as a type of the Timurid Renaissance, in which he built historical and political bonds with his Timurd heritage mainly via his numerous unsuccessful military campaigns on his ancestral region of Balkh. Later he took refuge in Udaipur Mewar with Maharaja Karan Singh II . He was first lodged in Delwada Ki Haveli and subsequently shifted to Jagmandir Palace on his request. Mumtaz Mahal died in 1631 in Burhanpur, Deccan (present-day Madhya Pradesh), during the birth of her fourteenth child, a daughter named Gauhar Ara Begum. In various forms, Shah Jahan appropriated his Timurid background and grafted it onto his imperial legacy.[37]. Final resting place 43 ] suggest this inside one end of the dome can be heard at bottom. 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